TRAIAN: A Compiler for LOTOS NT Specifications

TRAIAN 3.3 is available for download (February 28, 2021)

Version 1.106 - Date 2021/02/28 10:01:42

1. The LOTOS NT language

LOTOS NT (where "NT" stands for "New Technology") is a computer language that belongs to a family of languages originating from LOTOS; other languages in this family are E-LOTOS and LNT. For detailed information about LOTOS, E-LOTOS, and LNT, read this article and the tutorial page of CADP.

Formal methods are often advocated as suitable formalisms for the specification of telecommunication protocols and distributed systems. The definition of LOTOS (ISO/IEC International Standard 8807) in 1989 was a major attempt at standardizing a formal method based on process calculi and algebraic data types.

The definition of LOTOS NT at INRIA Rhône-Alpes was undertaken as a side activity of the work initiated in 1992 by the ISO/IEC Committee for producing a revision of the LOTOS standard, which led to the adoption of E-LOTOS (Enhanced LOTOS, ISO/IEC International Standard 15437) in 2001.

LOTOS NT, which can be seen as a subset of E-LOTOS, is a second generation Formal Description Technique that combines strong theoretical foundations with language features suitable for a wider acceptance by industry.

At INRIA Rhône-Alpes, LOTOS NT is intensively used for compiler construction. Thirteen compilers and translators (AAL, ATLANTIF, CHP2LOTOS, CTRL2BLK, EXP.OPEN, FSP2LOTOS, GRL2LNT, LNT2LOTOS, MCL_EXPAND, NTIF, PIC2LNT, SVL, and TRAIAN) have been written in LOTOS NT.

2. The TRAIAN compiler

TRAIAN is a compiler for LOTOS NT developed at INRIA Grenoble Rhône-Alpes, initially by the VASY team, then by the CONVECS team.

The name TRAIAN was chosen in honor of the Roman emperor (a successor of CAESAR) who funded Romania.

Until version 2.9, TRAIAN was developed using SYNTAX and FNC-2, two compiler generation tools designed at INRIA Rocquencourt.

Since version 3.0, TRAIAN is developed using SYNTAX and most of its source code (72% of 31,600 lines) is written in LOTOS NT itself, meaning that TRAIAN compiles itself by bootstrapping. It performs the following tasks:

3. Release notes for TRAIAN

4. Download the latest version of TRAIAN

TRAIAN is not part of the
CADP toolbox and must be installed separately.

The current version of the TRAIAN compiler is version 3.3 released on February 28, 2021.

The following computer architectures and operating systems are currently supported by TRAIAN:

TRAIAN is available for download from the VASY FTP server:

Please contact for any question or comment about TRAIAN.

5. Related publications

LOTOS NT User's Manual (Version 3.3)
Mihaela Sighireanu (with updates by Alban Catry, David Champelovier, Hubert Garavel, Frédéric Lang, Guillaume Schaeffer, Wendelin Serwe, and Jan Stöcker)
February 2021, 66 pages.

Etude et réalisation d'un compilateur E-LOTOS à l'aide du générateur de compilateurs SYNTAX/FNC-2
Bruno Vivien
December 1997, in French, 150 pages.

Towards a Second Generation of Formal Description Techniques - Rationale for the Design of E-LOTOS
Hubert Garavel and Mihaela Sighireanu.
May 1998, 28 pages.

Compiler Construction using LOTOS NT
Hubert Garavel, Frédéric Lang, and Radu Mateescu
April 2002, 5 pages.

Hubert Garavel, Frédéric Lang, and Wendelin Serwe
October 2017, 29 pages.

6. Credits

Until version 2.9, TRAIAN has been written by Mihaela Sighireanu, Xavier Bouchoux, David Champelovier, Claude Chaudet, Nicolas Descoubes, Hubert Garavel, Yves Guerte, Marc Herbert, Rémi Hérilier, Alain Kaufmann, Frédéric Lang, Vincent Powazny, Wendelin Serwe, and Bruno Vivien. Acknowledgements are also due to Fabrice Baray, Estelle Dumas, Radu Mateescu, Gwen Salaün, Damien Thivolle, and Sai-Srikar Kasi for their valuable remarks about TRAIAN.

Since version 3.0, TRAIAN is being developed by Hubert Garavel, Frédéric Lang, and Wendelin Serwe.

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